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The Brain: The Nervous System

Neuron Structure

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Your brain is made up of 100 billion nerve cells called neurons. These neurons then gather together and give off specific signals. what differs these neurons from other cells are their electrohemical charateristic. This allows them to send signals over long distances in order to pass messages to each other. These neurons can send signals up to sevral meters or even feet.
 
Figure 1: Neuron Digram. Dendrites, Nucleus, Axon, Mylein Sheath, Soma, Bouton
 
Neurons are composed of 3 parts which include:
  • The cell body
  • Axon
  • Dendrites

The Cell Body:  the cell body is the most important part as it holds the  nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and the mitochondira. If th cell were biody were to die, the neuron also dies.

Axon: These appear to be a long cable like projection of the cell  that carries the nerve impulse or action potential. Depending on the type of neuron axons are covered with a this layer of mylein.

Mylein:  Mylein is made of fat and and it helps to speed transmission of a nerve impulse down a long axon.

Dendrites: These appear to be branch projections located on both ends of the cell. The dendrites allow the neurons to communicate with other cells.

Information from Nelson 12 Biology 2003
 

Created By Kenisha Hanson